Buy Solved BIOS 252 Week 8 Final Exam Material (Collection)


Buy Solved BIOS 252 Week 8 Final Exam Material Collection


BIOS 252 Week 8 Final Exam (Essay Questions/Answers)

  1. Questions: Define a spinal reflex and use an example from the body to illustrate a spinal reflex.
  2. Questions: Describe sleep and its major stages and then contrast sleep to coma – how are they similar and how do they differ?
  3. Questions: Explain language usage and comprehension including a description of the two major language areas of the brain, where they are located, and what they are specialized to accomplish, including what happens when damage occurs to either area.
  4. Questions: Compare and contrast the cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, discussing their anatomical and physiological differences.
  5. Questions: Explain the process of light reflecting off an object and passing through the eye. Include all relevant structures and indicate how the photon is transduced into an electrochemical signal in the brain. Include the major regions involved in visual transduction.
  6. Questions: Explain the control of estrogen and progesterone through the endocrine system.
  7. Questions: Explain the process of calcium regulation in the body using the concepts of homeostasis and negative feedback
  8. Questions: How is sugar regulated in the body (both up and down-regulation of the molecule in the bloodstream)
  9. Questions: Discriminate between paracrine, autocrine, endocrine, and exocrine secretions
  10. Questions: Describe each endocrine gland and describe the hormone(s) it secretes, the function(s) of the hormone(s), and how the endocrine gland is regulated.
  11. Questions: Draw a sarcomere and describe the role of all major proteins that were discussed in class.
  12. Questions: List all cranial nerves including their makeup (mixed, efferent, afferent), effector/sensory targets, and major consequences of damage to these nerves.
  13. Questions: Describe sensation and signal transduction for each of the special senses.
  14. Questions: Describe the different kinds of diabetes and how they interact with/are dependent on the endocrine system

BIOS 252 Week 8 Final Exam (Review)

Anatomical terminology and general principles of physiology

  1. Question: What are the planes of the section that divide the body into left and right; front and back; up and down?
  2. Question: What do the following pairs of positional terms mean: proximal and distal, medial and lateral, dorsal and ventral, superior and inferior, contralateral and ipsilateral, superficial and deep?
  3. Question: Explain the terms that describe locations/parts of the body: cervical, cranial, brachial, antebrachial, femoral, cutaneous/subcutaneous, sacral, gluteal, thoracic, dorsal
  4. Question: What is the properties of the “anatomical position”?
  5. Question: Describe negative feedback loop components and explain what it
  6. Question: Define homeostasis.
  7. Question: List common medical imaging techniques and briefly describe how each one

Chemistry, biochemistry, and cell biology

  1. Question: Explain why the formation of a chemical bond (giving away an electron, picking up an electron, or sharing electrons) makes an atom more
  2. Question: What chemical characteristics do acids and bases have (what does each release in solution)?
  3. Question: What is produced during hydrolysis of a: fat (triglyceride), protein, starch?
  4. Question: List the types of monomers that are used to make: proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic
  5. Question: What are the names of bonds between monomers in the above polymers?
  6. Question: Define “hydrophobic” and “hydrophilic” chemicals and give an example of
  7. Question: What are “hypertonic”, “isotonic” and “hypotonic” solutions? Which one do human cells prefer to be in and why? What is osmosis? What is “creation”?
  8. Question: What are the names of nucleotide DNA is made from? Which nucleotide pairs with which?
  9. Question: What are the structures and functions of the following cellular organelles: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, centrosome, Golgi complex, ribosomes, cilia, and flagella?
  10. Question: Explain the terms “transcription”, “translation” and “replication” – what is produced during each?
  11. Question: What chemicals are cell membranes made from?
  12. Question: List the stages of mitosis and explain what happens during each stage (to chromosomes, centrioles, nuclear membrane, and cell membrane).
  13. Question: What is cytokinesis?
  14. Question: How do the cells produced as a result of mitosis compare to the parent cell?
  15. Question: Explain the differences between mitosis and meiosis: which one is used to make identical cells and which one is used to make gametes?


  1. Question: Explain the structure, function, and location of the following connective tissues: dense regular, dense irregular, adipose, areolar, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, bone,
  2. Question: Explain the classification of epithelia based on cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional) and based on a number of layers (simple, stratified, and pseudostratified).
  3. Question: Compare the structure of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues (length of cell, number of nuclei, voluntary control, presence of intercalated discs).
  4. Question: Give a specific example of where you can find each of 3 types of muscle
  5. Question: List the names of cells, found in different tissues, such as chondrocytes, adipocytes, and keratinocytes.

Integumentary system

  1. Question: Name all functions of the
  2. Question: Skin = epidermis + dermis. Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) connects skin to underlying structures (muscle, bone). Which tissues is each layer made of?
  3. Question: What are the regions of the dermis and which tissues do they contain?
  4. Question: List the layers of the epidermis in proper order from superficial to
  5. Question: Which layer is called “stratum germinativum”?
  6. Question: What types of cells can you find in the skin? What is the main cell type in the epidermis?
  7. Question: Which pigments affect the color of skin and hair?
  8. Question: Describe the structure of hair and name all layers that make up the hair: which one is the deepest and which one is the most superficial?
  9. Question: Explain which chemicals can penetrate the skin easily and which cannot and


  1. Question: What are the main types of bones in the human body? Give an example of each type!
  2. Question: Describe the structure of a long bone (diaphysis, metaphyses, epiphyses, articular cartilages, epiphyseal plates or epiphyseal lines, medullary cavity, bone marrow, periosteum, and endosteum)
  3. Question: What are epiphyseal plates made from and what is their role in bone growth?
  4. Question: What are fontanelles and where can you find them?
  5. Question: Explain the process of endochondral and intramembranous ossification.
  6. Question: Explain the microscopic structure of compact bone. What are the components of osteon and their functions: lamellae, central canal with nerves and blood vessels, lacunae, canaliculi, perforating canals, and osteocytes?
  7. Question: Name the types of cells found in bone tissue (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteogenic cells) and explain the function of
  8. Question: What are the effects of PTH (parathyroid hormone) and calcitonin on bone and how are these hormones regulated?
  9. Question: What is the effect of physical exercise and estrogens on bone strength?
  10. Question: Which vitamins are important for bone homeostasis?
  11. Question: What is osteoporosis and what can cause it?
  12. List the markings (features) of select bones (some of the ones we studied in the lab!): scapula, ulna, radius, humerus, femurs, coxal bone (ilium, ischium and pubis), temporal, mandible, ethmoid, occipital,
  13. Question: Name which joints of the above bones
  14. Question: In which bone has sella turcica and what is located in it?
  15. Question: Which bone markings are commonly used for muscle attachments?
  16. Question: Explain what each type of bone marking is, for example “foramen”, “notch”, “tubercle”, “condyle”
  17. Question: What is a sesamoid bone and where can you find it?
  18. Question: List and describe pathological bends (deviations) of the spinal column.
  19. Question: List the bones of the axial skeleton and appendicular

Muscles and joints

  1. Question: Explain the structure of a skeletal muscle as an organ: tendons, epimysium, perimysium, fascicles, endomysium, muscle fibers –what are the functions of these components?
  2. Question: Describe the structure of a myofibril and sarcomere and indicate the functions of the following protein components: actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin,
  3. Question: What gives skeletal muscles striated appearance?
  4. Question: What are cross-bridges and how do they form?
  5. Question: Where are the following parts of the sarcomere located: Z-disc, H-zone, A-band, I-band, M-line?
  6. Question: Explain how parts of a sarcomere move during
  7. Question: Explain the functions of the following structures of skeletal muscle cells: motor end plate, Ach-receptor (AchR), acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE), T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma.
  8. Question: What is the role of calcium ions in the function of myofibrils?
  9. Question: Explain how the electrical impulse travels from the motor neuron and through the muscle cell – what parts of the cell does it pass through?
  10. Question: Which ions are involved in action potential and in which way do they go through the membrane?
  11. Question: Describe the structure and function of a neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
  12. Question: Function of muscles and joints: what are effort, load, and resistance?
  13. Question: What are agonist, antagonist, and prime mover muscles? What is the insertion and origin of a muscle?
  14. Question: Explain how a muscle can be named and give
  15. Question: Name the types of joints based on structure (fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial) and give examples of each
  16. Question: Explain the classification of joints based on mobility (synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis) and give
  17. Question: Describe the components of a synovial joint: capsule, articular cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, ligaments, etc.. What is the function of each of those parts?
  18. Question: What is the difference between a ligament, a tendon, and an aponeurosis?
  19. Question: Explain (and demonstrate!) the following joint movements: supination, pronation, adduction, abduction, circumduction, rotation, flexion, extension, elevation, depression, inversion, eversion, and opposition.
  20. Question: List some diseases of joints – types of arthritis. What causes osteoarthritis?

Nervous system and sensory organs

  1. Question: List the types of neuroglia and explain what each type
  2. Question: Where can you find CSF, what is its function and how is it …?
  3. Question: Name 3 meninges in proper order, from superficial to deep.
  4. Question: Describe the phases of action potential in a neuron: depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization. Which ions are … in each and how do they move?
  5. Question: What are the functions of the following CNS regions: cerebellum, cerebrum (hemispheres, gyri, sulci), medulla, oblongata, pons, midbrain (corpora quadrigemina), diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)?
  6. Question: Which regions are parts of the brain stem?
  7. Question: What are the functions of motor areas, sensory areas, and associative areas in the cerebral cortex?
  8. Question: What are the roles of the limbic system, reticular formation, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area?
  9. Question: Describe the structure of the spinal cord; white and gray matter, motor neurons, ascending and descending tracts, spinal
  10. Question: Name 12 cranial nerves and describe briefly what each
  11. Question: What do the terms “somatic” and “autonomic” mean?
  12. Question: What types of structures does the ANS control? What about SNS?
  13. Question: What are the events during the “fight or flight” (stress) response?
  14. Question: Name 3 “tunics” of the eye (fibrous, vascular, and neural) and describe what type of structures they make (cornea, sclera, choroid, ciliary body, iris, retina).
  15. Question: Describe the structure and function of the
  16. Question: Which structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye?
  17. Question: Compare rods and cones photoreceptors based on what they do and their location on the retina.
  18. Question: What causes glaucoma?
  19. Question: Explain the structures of the ear: the outer ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear (ossicles), inner ear (bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth), cochlea, vestibule, and semi-circular canals.
  20. Question: Name 3 auditory ossicles; where are they located?

BIOS 252 Final Exam (Study Guide)

Chapter 10:

  1. Muscle tissue function
  2. Types of skeletal muscle proteins/function (p.300)

Chapter 11:

  1. Steps in skeletal muscle contraction
  2. Definitions

Chapter 12:

  1. Excitatory neurotransmitter function
  2. Inhibitory neurotransmitter function
  3. Depolarization (concept)
  4. Repolarization (concept)
  5. Hyperpolarization (concept

Chapter 13:

  1. Internal anatomy of the spinal cord
  2. Cervical enlargement (part of the body it supplies)
  3. Lumbar enlargement (part of the body it supplies)
  4. Sympathetic stimulation
  5. Parasympathetic stimulation
  6. Ascending tract (sensory or motor)
  7. Descending tract (sensory or motor)

Chapter 14:

  1. Meninges
  2. Cranial nerves (number and function)
  3. Wernicke’s area
  4. Broca’s area
  5. Location of:
  6. Primary motor area
  7. Primary somatosensory area
  8. Visual cortex
  9. Function of:
  10. Hypothalamus
  11. Hippocampus
  12. Medulla oblongata
  13. Cerebellum

Chapter 17:

  1. Semicircular canal (function )
  2. Presbyopia
  3. Hyperopia
  4. Myopia
  5. Cones/Rods
  6. Olfactory receptor location
  7. Iris (description)
  8. Cornea (description)
  9. Conjunctiva (description)
  10. Primary taste sensations
  11. Special senses
  12. Blind spot
  13. Cataract (treatment)

Chapter 18:

  1. Posterior Pituitary Gland (Identification and hormones *Understand how the Pituitary gland is …)
  2. Anterior Pituitary Gland (Identification and hormones secreted)
  3. Adrenal Gland ( top of the kidneys )
  4. Pineal Gland (location and hormone)
  5. Differences in the control of the Pituitary gland)
  6. Infundibulum
  7. Pancreas (function of hormones)


  1. Muscles
  2. Vision
  3. Brain

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BIOS 252 Final Exam
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