# Buy Solved PA 581 Entire Course Guide Week 1-8

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## Buy Solved PA 581 Entire Course Guide Week 1-8

PA 581 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 – Government Operations
PA-581 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 – Budget Strategies

PA 581 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 – Budget Deficit
PA-581 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 – Budget Justification
PA 581 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 – Benefits Cost Analysis
PA 581 Week 3 Discussion Question 2 – Performance Budgeting
PA-581 Week 3 Quiz
PA 581 Week 4 Case Analysis US Budget
PA 581 Week 4 Discussion Question 1 – Rocky Mountain Wranglers
PA-581 Week 4 Discussion Question 2 – Federal Income Tax Issues
PA 581 Week 5 Discussion Question 1 – Sin Taxes
PA 581 Week 5 Discussion Question 2 – Property Tax Breaks
PA-581 Week 6 Discussion Question 1 – Tax Expenditure Budget
PA 581 Week 6 Discussion Question 2 – State Lotteries
PA-581 Week 6 Quiz
PA 581 Week 7 Case Analysis: State of Local Government Budget State of Illinois
PA 581 Week 7 Discussion Question 1 – Debt Policy Statement 1
PA-581 Week 7 Discussion Question 2 – Debt Restrictions
PA 581 Week 8 Final Exam

## Course Related Study Guides

PA 581 Case Analysis Week 1 + Week 7
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PA 581 Week 4 Case Analysis US Budget
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PA 581 Week 7 Case Analysis State of Local Government Budget State of Illinois
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PA 581 All Discussion Questions Week 1 – 8
Price \$29 USD

PA 581 Week 3 Quiz
Price \$15 USD
1. (TCO A) Which of the following statements describes the relationship among federal, state, and local governments?
2. (TCO A) Logrolling is the process where:
3. (TCO B) Current-dollar government purchases were \$1,500 billion in 2010. With 2000 as the base year, assume the price deflator for 2010 is 175 (or, 1.75 if you don’t multiply by 100). In real dollars, the year 2000 government purchases would be which of the following (rounded to the nearest billion)?
4. (TCO C) The largest portion of local government expenditures is:
5. (TCO C) Appropriation to the State Library System (fiscal year starts July 1) for fiscal year 201x was \$24,000,000. Quarterly…………..
On December 31, 201X, budget reports showed expenditures of \$12,500,000 and encumbrances of \$800,000. Taking encumbrances into consideration, what is the status of Library System spending as of December 31?
6. (TCO B) List and describe the four basic elements of the president’s budget.
7. (TCO A) Name and describe the major steps in the executive budget preparation process.
8. (TCO B) Here are the annual personal benefits of a proposed Dog Romp Zone (DRZ) as perceived by Ann (A), Bob (B), and Chris (C):
Individual Annual Benefit…………….
9. (TCO B) Define and describe the following budget terms:
10. (TCO C) A state game and fish agency wants to invest in a new fish hatchery. It is estimated that the cost of operating the system will be \$2,000,000 per year after a one-time installation cost of \$5,000,000 is incurred. The construction period will be one year. Once the plant is constructed and in operation, community benefits are estimated at \$4,000,000 per year. The system would be financed by a property tax increment placed on the business and residential sectors…….
11. (TCO B) Current-dollar government purchases were \$1,250 billion in 2010. With 2000 as the base year, assume the price deflator for 2010 is 175 (or, 1.75 if you don’t multiply by 100). In real dollars, the year 2000 government purchases would be which of the following?
12. (TCO C) Appropriation to the State Library System (fiscal year starts July 1) for fiscal year 201x was \$21,500,000. Quarterly allotments were as follows:

PA 581 Week 6 Quiz
Price \$15 USD
1. (TCO D) A residence in Brevard County has an assessed value of \$150,000. Its owner qualifies for an old age exemption of \$10,000 and a homestead exemption of \$20,000……..?
2. (TCO E) The Federal government taxes consumption mainly through:
3. (TCO E) With reference to tax systems, the principle of collectability asserts that:
4. (TCO E) Which of the following pieces of evidence would by itself allow a judgment about the regressivity or progressivity of a tax?
5. (TCO G) Line-Item budgets:
6. (TCO H) Capital programs are an important part of governmental budgeting and finance. (A) Briefly distinguish between an operating budget and a capital budget. (B) Develop a convincing case as to why it is appropriate for governments to prepare two separate budgets: an operating budget and a capital budget. Cite at least two reasons.
7. (TCO E) The City of Champions has a referendum that will go before voters to build the best football stadium in the world. The ballot calls for the voters to approve or disapprove a 6% sales tax increase to construct….?
(B) Describe each standard and explain why it applies and whether the standard has been violated.
8. (TCO E) Al has an income of \$40,000, and Betty’s income is \$200,000. With no sales tax in place, Al spends \$7,000 on grocery food and Betty spends \$12,000…….
9. (TCO H) Capital projects play a very important part in government at all levels. (A) Distinguish between capital outlay and capital budgets. Is capital outlay normally a part of the operating budget or operating budget?
(B) Provide five examples of capital outlay expenditures. Provide five examples of capital projects.
10. (TCO E) Keller works within the City and County of Denver and lives in the suburbs. His employer deducts \$6.00 per month from his salary for deposit in the Denver budgetary revenue accounts……
11. (TCO E) Al has an income of \$70,000 while Betty’s income is \$30,000. With no sales tax in place, Al spends \$7,000 on grocery food and Betty spends \$4,000. (A) If the state government now taxes all groceries…..

PA 581 Week 8 Final Exam
Price \$29 USD

Page 1

1. (TCO A) One of our lectures discusses the budget execution stage of the budget cycle. Please identify and explain each of the major steps in the budget execution process.
2. (TCO D) Property taxes receive a number of complaints from some taxpayers and many politicians. Please identify at least three of these complaints, and discuss them in detail. Refer to standards such as vertical equity, horizontal equity, and regressiveness as you discuss these complaints.
3. (TCO C) Quarterly allotments for the appropriation to the State Library System for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 201X, and ending on June 30, 201Y were as follows:
4. (TCO F) Answer completely all of the following questions: Why do state and local governments go into debt? What is a municipal bond?
How does a municipal bond differ from a corporate bond? What is Net Interest Cost (NIC) and how does it differ from True Interest Cost (TIC)? What role does TIC play in governmental capital project financing?
5. (TCO E) What is the purpose of a tax system? One of the basic criteria that are considered when a tax system is evaluated is equity….

Page 2

1. (TCO A, B) What is the meaning of a budget format? Governmental budgets may be organized in line-item, program, and performance formats. What are the differences between these three approaches? Make an argument that builds a case for hybrid presentations that includes all three elements.
2. (TCO A, B) Our text addresses the federal deficit and relevant laws and measures for controlling and preventing deficits. Please explain each of these measures in detail. These areas are (1) debt limits, (2) aggregate budgeting, (3) targets and enforcement, and (4) spending controls, PAYGO, and adjustable deficit targets.
3. (TCO G) Explain the importance of Pareto Improvement to a governmental unit.
A public project produces the following individual benefits for stakeholders stated in terms of present values when an appropriate social discount rate of 15% is used: Al = \$8,000, Bev = \$20,000, and Chris = \$11,000…..
4. (TCO H) List the steps in the capital budget process and explain each of them.
5. (TCO I) Below is a table showing the income of individuals A and B together with their food and clothing purchases in an untaxed environment (NOTE: K = 1000)……

Government Budget and Finance

1. The question concentrates on the authority of federal, state, and local powers for budgeting and fiscal affairs, the federal budget cycle,
2. the generic budget cycle, and budget formats. Know the essential information for each of these topics [TCO A, B]
3. The question concentrates on capital projects, the differences between a capital project budget and an operating budget, the difference between capital outlay and a capital project, and the steps in the capital budgeting process. [TCO H]
4. The question concentrates on Pareto Improvement. Be sure to know its importance, making the calculations, doing the analysis, and drawing conclusions and recommendations.[TCO G]
5. The question concentrates on property taxes, their particular importance to local government, assessed values, assessment ratios, mil rates, circuit breakers, and tax deferrals. Know the process for assessing property, and calculating and levying property taxes. Also, have a good understanding of the upsides and downsides (complaints) relevant to property taxes. [TCO D]
6. The question concentrates on the steps and stages of the budget execution process, budget authority, and the five different types of budget authority, and Congress makes responsibilities and actions regarding the federal budget process.[TCO A]
7. The question concentrates on quarterly appropriation allotments and monitoring and controlling the budget. Be prepared to read and analyze the budgetary status of an agency with quarterly allotments, expenditures, encumbrances, and unencumbered balances. This process will include doing calculations, analyzing the figures, and making recommendations.[TCO C]
8. The question concentrates on government debt, deficits, and phases of budget cycles. Know reasons why governments incur debt. Ensure that you have an understanding of municipal bonds, corporate bonds, the net interest cost, true interest cost, and its relationship to capital project financing. Finally, be prepared to talk about the five principles of good debt management.[TCO F]
9. The question concentrates on the importance of budget cycles and their four phases, governmental accounting principles, practices, and funds, and, federal laws for controlling and preventing deficits.[TCO A]
10. The question concentrates on the purpose of a tax system and the standards used to evaluate that system. [TCO D]
11. The question concentrates on calculating sales tax rates for two individuals, determining whether they are regressive, and deciding which of two major products should be taxed in order to be equitable.[TCO I]

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